Time for a More Rational Cannabis Policy
Individuals who suffer from severe chronic pain are caught in a double bind. Opioids contribute to the enormous societal harms of unintentional overdose, diversion and addiction, and data on their long-term effectiveness are conflicting and inadequate (Chou R, Turner JA, Devine EB, et al. The effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health pathways to prevention workshop. Ann Intern Med. Published online Jan. 13, 2015 doi:10.7326/M14-2559). But for patients who are helped by opioids, policies and regulations to address societal harms are, in some cases, impeding access to treatment, making it difficult even to find a knowledgeable physician. The need for safer and more effective analgesics has never been greater.
Answers do not lie in pitting one serious disease (i.e., chronic pain) against another (i.e., addiction) but in seeking scientific breakthroughs that lead to serious analgesic benefits without addictive properties or risk for respiratory depression. Rigorous research of cannabinoids has the potential to unlock a medicinal benefit on a societal scale. But committing to the necessary research requires rethinking how we classify cannabinoids as a controlled substance.
Inching Toward Safer Pain Treatments
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces the “high” effect associated with marijuana. On its own, cannabidiol (CBD) displays a plethora of actions including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and is believed to have fewer undesirable psychoactive effects than THC (Phytother Res 2009;23:597-602). Some research indicates that cannabinoids may provide analgesia for various pain conditions (Rambam Maimonides Med J 2013;4:e0022). Practically speaking, harnessing the potential medicinal benefits of marijuana without these unwanted effects would be a long-awaited breakthrough for science. Despite many strictures, scientists—largely from other countries—are inching closer to the finish line with products that could replace opioids in some instances.
On this point, we must speak cautiously and with a clear understanding: The current literature is weak at best. For example, Sativex, an oral spray composed of CBD and delta-9-THC currently on the market in Europe, Canada and Mexico, did not meet its primary end point of statistical difference from placebo for relief of cancer pain in an initial Phase III trial. Research in this area is in a nascent stage, and the ultimate conclusions are uncertain. But conclusive evidence requires rigorous study at a far faster pace and greater volume than is currently possible. Therein lies the problem.
Sadly, research is stymied due, in large part, to a federal and state regulatory structure that hamstrings researchers from gaining access to legal supplies of THC/CBD for scientific purposes. To study cannabis in the United States, scientists must comply with the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, which classifies cannabinoids as a Schedule I drug. Scheduling is controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and Schedule I drugs are deemed to have no medicinal value and a high potential for abuse.
Because of this, a researcher must pass through a gauntlet of onerous and time-intensive requirements to gain access to cannabinoids. The requirements to secure a license with the DEA, to register with the FDA, and to comply with a long checklist of rules from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to obtain research-grade cannabis all conspire to make the process protracted and costly. Yet the patchwork of public policy on marijuana is anything but consistent: 23 states and the District of Columbia have now legalized marijuana use in some form. Furthermore, public opinion is evolving to erase some of the historical stigma surrounding marijuana use.
Marathon runners have recently been using marijuana-infused balms and edible marijuana to treat pain and swelling. In a climate where it is now possible to ask in the pages of “Men’s Fitness,” “Does pot make you a better athlete?” the current classification of marijuana under Schedule I doesn’t make sense. Why define a substance as having no medical value when the evidence and the laws of many states now say otherwise? Reclassifying cannabinoids to Schedule II could help expand research opportunities and determine appropriate indications.
More importantly, rescheduling cannabinoids will not necessarily open the floodgates to irresponsible use. The American Society of Addiction Medicine warns that marijuana is not benign but a psychoactive drug with risks for abuse and addiction and subject to a risk–benefit profile discussion with patients in clinical settings. Rightly, Schedule II drugs are recognized as having a high potential for abuse and dependence and are heavily regulated. Thus, rescheduling would still recognize risks associated with cannabinoids in recreational use, while accepting that the potential medicinal benefits could help people suffering from a variety of diseases, including chronic pain. Given that opioids have significant risks as a medical treatment, including life-threatening respiratory depression, and have fueled a nationwide prescription drug abuse crisis, research to explore new pathways to analgesia-like cannabis would point us in a new and, we hope, better direction.
We cannot afford to wait. With more than 100 million Americans suffering from chronic pain annually—affecting more people than diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer combined, according to the Institute of Medicine—public policymakers must recognize and reschedule this potentially therapeutic modality.
Lynn R. Webster, MD, is the immediate past president of the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and vice president of scientific affairs at PRA Health Sciences. He is a Pain Medicine News editorial board member and author of a forthcoming book, “The Painful Truth.” His blog can be found at lynnwebstermd.com. He lives in Salt Lake City. Follow him on Twitter @LynnRWebsterMD, Facebook and LinkedIn.
Original article: http://bit.ly/1wI2K8Z